# of Strings:
Mstislav Rostropovitch (1969- ); Robert A. Lehman (1964); Benjamin Cooper via Jacques Francais (1958); Bernard Greenhouse (1950); Ginn Family, Boston (1901-49); W.E. Hill & Sons, London (1901)
www.cozio.com, no. 41430 (accessed 11/26/14)); Herzog 2003, IT-32
Pollens 2010, p. 148; Chiesa 2005, p. ??; Herzog 2004, pp. 188-89; Herzog 2003, IT-32
Chiesa 2005 (front & upper back [color]); Herzog 2003, IT-32 (back)
Nickname: “Visconti da Madrona”. Hills (1902, p. 114) suggested it was originally a viol, with wood added to table and back and decorative painting (coat of arms) as a cover-up; “may possibly be” viol made for Contessina Cristina Visconti for which patterns survive. Chiesa 2005: “originally a bass viola da gamba”; Pollens 2010: “It is possible that the 1684 ‘Visconti’ ... cello was originally a viola da gamba.” Dimensions & provenance from www.cozio.com, which suggests cello conversion perhaps done by John Betts. Herzog 2004 quotes personal communications from Bernard Greenhouse (in 2002-03) that shoulders were rounded and back fold eliminated as part of conversion from viol to cello, possibly by Vuillaume; not the same as a 5-string viol made also in 1684 for Contessa Sola of Bergno (contrary to statement in Herzog 2003). Restored by Sacconi for Greenhouse, per Herzog 2003. Herzog 2003 and 2004 dimensions 67, 32.6/21.4/40.3, -, - [??]. says coat of arms is that of Counts of Visconti of Cremona, not Visconti of Madrtona.